17th of August 2012, Blog # 509
An Embraer ERJ 190-100 IGW was operating a domestic flight in Taiwan between the cities of Taipei and Magong. 104 passengers were booked on the flight, with a crew of six operating the aircraft. After an uneventful flight, the aircraft was vectored for runway 20.
The aircraft in its final position (©ASC)
There was light rain coming down while visibility was 3200, above the minimum limitations for an approach. The approach was briefed as a Flap 5 approach, although the Aircraft Operating Manual stated;
Section from the AOM regarding landing configuration (© ASC)
12 nm out from the runway the crew got visual with the runway, the co-pilot (pilot monitoring - PM) called to 'THREE RED" when he observed the PAPI indicating three red and one white. To which the captain (pilot flying - PF) replied 'CORRECTING' and he pulled back slightly on the control column, increasing the pitch. (PAPI = Precision Approach Path Indicating - visually indicating the correct approach path to a runway, click here for more info)
At 50 feet the flare was initiated and a slight right roll occurred, the aircraft crossed the threshold at a height of 22feetas the throttles were retarded to idle at 10 feet altitude the aircraft climbed afterwards to 20 feet. The aircraft touched down just under 1000 meters (~3000 feet) from the threshold at a speed of 180 knots indicated. Thrust reversers were deployed and manual (wheel) braking was initiated.
As the aircraft decelerated through 70 knots, left rudder was applied, and the throttles were put in the minimum reverse position. As the crew was under the impression the deceleration was less than expected. The PM called out 'NOT ON RUNWAY' when the speed had dropped to 35 knots. A short while later bouncing noises are picked up by the CVR and at 14 knots the gear warning horn started sounding. The nose landing gear had failed, folding backwards, penetrating the fuselage.
The aircraft in its final position (© ASC)
With the aircraft coming to a standstill the crew completed the necessary emergency checklists and pulled the circuit breakers for both digital CVDR's (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) securing the recorded data. They then proceeded to the cabin and assisted in the evacuation of the aircraft. Damage to the aircraft was extensive;
Nose landing gear ripped from its mountings
structure of lower fuselage damaged
Engine inlets damaged
The incident was investigated by the ASC (Taiwanese Aviation Safety Committee), In their report (in Chinese) they concluded that;
The crew flared the aircraft early
The crew did not retard the throttles to idle in a timely manner
The crew held the control column
The crew did not initiate a go-around when the approach became unstable
Improper deceleration techniques were used by the crew
When reaching the end of the runway, the crew intentionally directed the aircraft off the runway
The nose gear failed as a result of hitting supports for the taxiway edge lights
The investigation report, in Chinese, is available for the readers' reference by clicking on the .pdf file below.
** Editorial note **
V2 Aviation - Training & Maintenance has not been able to obtain an investigation report in English related to this accident. This blog is therefore based on several internet sources. Should there be an inconsistency in the blog don't hesitate to get in touch with us. There are two possibilities to do that, via the comments function at the bottom of this page or via the contact page of the website.