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28th of May 2003, Blog #601

With a crew of 2 and 8 passengers on board a Cessna 560 Citation had departed Hannover (Germany) for a charter flight to Leeds Bradford Airport (England) on this day in 2003. The captain was the pilot monitoring (PM), and the co-pilot was the pilot flying (PF) for this flight.

The aircraft in its final position (Source; Aviation Safety Network © Paul Rainford)

The weather was calm for the landing, which was expected just before 13.30 local time;

  • Wind : 240º at 6 knots (variable 170º - 290º)

  • Visibility : 16 kilometres

  • Clouds : Few at 2500 feet

  • Temperature : 18ºc

  • QNH : 1022 mb

Arriving from the south ATC vectored the aircraft into a left-hand downwind position for an ILS approach to Runway 14 at Leeds Bradford Airport. During the descent and the turn onto the final approach, the PM was given some guidance by the PM. While on the final approach, the captain became the pilot flying, although there was no clear verbal handover of control. At the same time, ATC issued the aircraft with its landing clearance for Runway 14. The aircraft was still in a clean configuration at the time, while 5 miles from the runway on a 3,5º glide path, in a clean configuration with a speed of 220 knots. As the aircraft continued to descend on the glide path the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) Mode 4 "TOO LOW TERRAIN" warning sounded.

At 1,5 miles from the runway the speed brakes were extended followed by a selection of Flap 15. As the aircraft continued to descend ATC advised the crew that the landing gear was not down, to which the crew replied "We know". Subsequently, the landing gear was selected down, followed by the selection of full flaps, speed at the time 195 knots.

A second "TOO LOW TERRAIN" warning sounded twice, being interrupted by an (EGPWS) "MINIMUMS" call as the aircraft was at 200 feet AGL (Above Ground Level). Immediately afterwards there was one further "TOO LOW TERRAIN" aural alert and then a "SINK RATE SINK RATE" alert.

At a speed of ~155 knots, the aircraft was flared while over the touchdown zone, this caused the aircraft to float over the runway finally touching down passed the midpoint of the runway at a speed of 121 knots. Full reverse thrust was immediately selected on touchdown.

Wheel brakes were only activated approximately 1900 feet (585) from the runway end {Runway 14 is 7381 ft x 150 ft (2250 m x 46 m) long}. The remaining distance was not enough to stop the aircraft and the aircraft left the paved area of the runway at a speed of ~25 knots, coming to a stop in the grass in a nose-down attitude.

The aircraft on approach to Barcelona, Spain in 2018 (Source; © Jordi Ramon)

ATC observed the aircraft leaving the runway and sounded the crash alarm. The Airport Fire Service responded and was on the scene in two minutes. The occupants of the aircraft were not injured and vacated the aircraft without assistance from the Airport Fire Service.

The aircraft was resting nose down on the grass approximately 12 metres beyond the end of the paved surface of Runway 14. The wheels had dug deep furrows into the soft ground and the nosewheel had dug in sufficiently to break free from the nose gear leg. The right wing had impacted the ILS monitoring antenna, knocking it over, and producing a small dent in the leading edge of the right wing. The radome suffered minor damage when it impacted the grass surface after the nosewheel separated. There was also some damage to the main gear doors. Although damage was substantial the aircraft was repaired and returned to service.

The Air Accident Investigation Branch (AAIB) investigated the accident and after the investigation concluded that;

  • The approach was not stabilised

  • The crew did not respond to the EGPWS alerts

  • ATC found it prudent to call the crew that the landing gear was not down

  • Speed brakes were extended during the landing (Should have been retracted at 50 feet AGL)

  • Crew interaction not as expected

The AAIB report, which served as the source for this blog, and contains much more detailed information than provided in this blog can be accessed by clicking on the .pdf file below;

Citation Rwy Overrun 28May2003
Download PDF • 211KB

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