Updated: Oct 1, 2021
Thef iirst production Ilyushin 14, a Russian twin-engined civil and military transport aircraft, made its first flight on this day in 1950.
With its predecessor, the Ilyushin Il-12, just started rolling off the production line worries were growing about the OEI (One Engine Inoperative) handling characteristics of the Il-12. Several modifications were proposed, among others the installation of more powerful engines. Further analysis revealed that it was more of an aerodynamic issue than engine power. The decision was made to redesign the Il-12 and rename it, this would become the Il-14. The design changes were pretty extensive, the complete wing was redesigned;
Greater wing thickness
Fuel storage only outside of the engines
Slight forward wing sweep (3 degrees) at 3/4 of the chord
Flap design improved
Also the Il-14 would receive newer, and more powerful ASh-82T Radial engines with 1900 HP. Besides that it also had new (more efficient) cruise engine settings. Also the time between engine overhauls was increased to 500 hours. Engine cowlings were redesigned making them more aerodynamic, reducing the drag. The propeller system received an upgrade aswell, making the propeller feather faster when an engine failure occured. The gear system was also redesigned making the gear retraction time shorter, so in the event of a engine failure after V1 the gear would retract faster
The fuselage structure remained the same, compared to the Il-12. Althought the vertical stabilizer was changed to maintain better longitudinal stability. This was also necessary because the toilet and luggage compartment were moved to the area behind the flight deck, causing the CofG to move forward. Also the cockpit received an upgrade compare to the Il-12 to improve safety during inclement weather. Also the maintainability was improved by several (minor) system changes.
The actual first flight of an Il-14 'lookalike" took place on Friday the 13th of July 1950. This was an Il-12 aircraft modified to be a systems en technology demonstrator for the Il-14 development program.
A total of 14 variants would be developed and built by Ilyushin;
Il-14 : Twin-engined passenger, cargo transport aircraft.
Il-14FK / 14FKM Aerial photography version.
Il-14G Freight or cargo aircraft.
Il-14GGO Geophysical research version.
Il-14LIK-1 / LIK-2 Navigation aid calibration version.
Il-14LR Ice reconnaissance version.
Il-14M Stretched Il-14P, fitted with a lengthened fuselage, 14–36 seat.
Il-14P Airliner version, 18–32 seat.
Il-14PS / S VIP versions, based on Il-14P.
Il-14SI: Extended-range VIP version.
Il-14SO: 18-seat VIP version.
Il-14RR Fisheries reconnaissance version.
Il-14T Military transport version.
Crate-C Electronic warfare version
Il-14 three side views
Seven license built variants form the Il-14 were built under license by Avia from Czechoslovakia. These aircraft were designated as Avia 14 aircraft. China also had plans to built the Il-14 under license, but aborted these plans in favour of the Chinese developed Y-7 A total of 1348 IL-14 and Avia 14 airframes are reported to have been built Specifications for the Il-14M: General characteristics
Capacity: 24-32 pax with flight attendant
Length: 22.3 m (73 ft 2 in)
Wingspan: 31.7 m (104 ft 0 in)
Height: 7.9 m (25 ft 11 in)
Wing area: 99.7 m2 (1,073 sq ft)
Empty weight: 12,600 kg (27,778 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 18,000 kg (39,683 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Shvetsov ASh-82T 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,417 kW (1,900 hp) each
Propellers: 4-bladed constant-speed propellers
Maximum speed: 417 km/h (259 mph, 225 kn)
Range: 1,305 km (811 mi, 705 nmi)
Service ceiling: 7,400 m (24,300 ft)
Rate of climb: 5 m/s (980 ft/min)